Adhesion (from Latin: adhaerere – adherence) describes bonding at a molecular level within the phase boundary area. Adhesive forces, thus the forces acting between two molecules, result in, for example, the adherence of water droplets to the surface of glass panes or flower petals.  


  • There are a variety of theories regarding the formation of adhesion. Relevant for the metals sector are:
  • Mechanical adhesion
  • Specific adhesion

The theory of mechanical adhesion is the oldest of the adhesion theories. It describes the clamping effect (e.g. wood/glue) of surfaces with microscopically small pores or cavities.The theories of specific adhesion describe the cohesion of solids with smooth surfaces.There is the polarisation theory (adhesion caused by the dipolar character of molecules), the electro-static theory (electric double layer as the cause of adhesion forces), the diffusion theory (Brownian molecular motion as a cause of diffusion processes) and the adsorption and wetting theory (thermo-dynamic observation of boundary surface effects).


Hardening stainless steel protects against adhesion.

The BORINOX® procedure has a major advantage in that the properties of the rust-free materials remain intact, but at the same time, the lifetime is extended. No substitution of the materials used is required.At the edges of components, BORINOX® creates a wear-resistant zone that also eliminates cold fusion. The joining of, for example, bolts and screws, is reliable and these can undone again without the risk of cold fusion. Metallic-sealing ball valves made from austenitic steel, such as, AISI 304, AISI 316 (LN), AISI 318, or nickel-based alloys like Inconel® 718 can be safely used for long periods. BORINOX® thus directly increases the operational safety of safety-relevant components.These materials can be hardened using the BORINOX® procedureWith the BORINOX® procedure, a variety of different types of steel may be hardened and thus rendered more durable. These include, for example, austenite, duplex steels, PH steels, martensite, and nickel-based alloys. Additional information on materials which can be treated with BORINOX® can be found here.